Concept, Term
“Who, What, Where, When, Why” - a universal formula to formulate commands
Action (as state)
A basic, elementary goal at a given level of abstraction achieving of which is highly predictable

For example: Making a step is an elementary and highly-predictable goal for a healthy human, but if considered at lower abstraction level it can be broken down into complex muscle contractions controlled by nerve impulses
Action (as operation)
An elementary function used to achieve an elementary goal (action as state)

Also known as: Operation, Execution Function
Active Element
A role to identify an element which is actively involved into a management process. Active element is directed by goals, able to perform actions and makes changes in the outside world.
Same as Active Element
Analysis Depth
A measure to describe number of parameters/variables to be taken into account to generate quality management decision.
A guess that active element makes about uncertainty
The use of technology (machines, control systems and information technologies) to enhance or completely replace manual human operations

Common Operational Picture (COP)
Information that describes current state of a system, current set of goals, progress toward them and interpretations (facts) important for making management decisions.

A highly-integrated User Interface that displays current state, current goals, their progress, important interpretations and allows to interactively make management decisions.

Information transfer according to agreed conventions
A soft dependency between goals which require use of same resources at the same time
Comprehensive Automation
Automation that completely replaces humans and entirely removes them from management process
Conceptually Complete Management Automation System
A management automation system that supports all necessary OODA functions of an active element and allows him to perform his work at satisfactory level without use of any extra tools

For example: If person is given a computer with only one system installed and locked in empty room he shall be able to do his work using that system at satisfactory level
A soft dependency between goals which require change of state in different directions
A logically defined set of elements. Context represents:
  • System or subsystem
  • Environment or sub-environment
Command & Control (C2)
Command and Control. The authority, responsibilities and activities of managers in the direction and coordination of work forces and in the implementation of the assignments related to the execution of operations.
A set of changes on goals (e.g. create, change or delete a goal) made for a specific reason

For example: Do that (achieve a new goal), Don’t go that (cancel a goal), Do that in a different way (change a goal or/and modify its subgoals)
Decision Quality
A measure of quality of generated management decisions. A value opposite to decision error.
Decision Maker
Same as Active Element
Decision Making Entity
Same as Active Element
Same as Result
A  fundamental, essential, or irreducible constituent of a system or environment
Element Relation
A logically defined set of ordered pairs of elements. Relation may have own state defined by one or few parameters.

Also known as: Element Association or Link
Element Role
A role that element plays in a management process. Standard roles are:
  • Active Element (Decision Maker, Actor, Agent)
  • Resource
  • Subject
  • Observable Element
Elements of outside world that effect but not under system control

An signal that goal cannot be achieved in the way it was defined
Same as Interpretation
Functional Group
A logically defined set of functions. Typically Functional Group is used to achieve one of few goals.
A future desired state that system or element plans or intends to achieve.

Also know as: Objective, Target, Aim, Command, Purpose, Intent, Task, Action, and many others.

Goal Balancing
A process of reaching multiple interdependent (competing, conflicting, synergetic) goals. Balancing typically involves making suboptimal decisions, replanning, conflict resolution, sacrifices, compromises, etc.
Goal Definition
A process of establishing specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-targeted (S.M.A.R.T ) goals.
Goal Dependency
An objectively existing relation between goals. Dependencies can be subdivided into:
  • Hard dependencies - parent/child or reason/consequence
  • Soft dependencies - dependencies, which appear only at specific point in time in certain context, such as Competition, Synergy or Conflict
Goal Evaluation
A process of analysis of goal before, during or after execution. It can be further broken down into:
  • Suitability - goal will lead to desired results
  • Feasibility - goal is achievable under given constraints
  • Acceptability - goal matches core values

Also known as: Goal Analysis
Goal Formulation
A process of definition, structuring and evaluation of goals.

Also known as: Goal Setting
Goal Propagation
A process of goal transfer between active elements. By direction it can be subdivided into:
  • Goal Setting - propagation top-down
  • Goal Seeking - propagation bottom-up
  • Goal Sharing - horizontal propagation
Goal Reaching
A process of taking actions in order to achieve a goal.

Also known as: Goal Execution, Goal Achieving
Goal Structuring
A process of breakdown goal into a set of subgoals, achievement of those shall lead to achievement of the entire goal. Sometimes it involves sequencing and conditional planning of subgoal execution formulated as Execution Pattern or Process, sometimes called Strategy.
GOMA (Goal-oriented Management Automation)
Principles, models and methodologies to analyze, design and integrate automated social-economical management systems.

Comprehensive automation of management in organization in contrast to partial fragmentary automation
Information Flow
A specific information transferred or/and used by a system. Typical information flows are:
  • Goal
  • Escalation
  • Interpretation
  • Observation
  • Results
  • Support (Supplementary) Information
A factual evaluation of state of element, system or environment

Also known as: Fact
The act of conducting  efforts to accomplish desired goals using available resources efficiently and effectively

A process of transforming system or element state from its current toward a future desired state (defined by goals)

Management Function
A specific process or activity that active element or system is able to perform. Standard functions are:
  • Observe (Sense)
  • Orient (Analyze, Interpret)
  • Decide (Plan)
  • Act (Execute)

A psychological feature that arouses an human to act towards a desired goal and elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal directed behaviors. It can be considered a driving force; a psychological drive that compels or reinforces an action toward a desired goal.

For example: Hunger is a motivation that elicits a desire to eat.

An basic, elementary interpretation at a given level of abstraction.

For example: temperature measured in celsius degrees is a basic fact for humans, but if considered at lower abstraction level it represents an interpretation of molecule movements
Observable Element
A role to identify a passive element which supplies information used in a management process
Same as Goal
Same as Management Function
An open social-economical system that exists in real world. Every organization has higher-level goals called “ultimate organization purpose”. It also has own will, which define how the organization achieves those goals.

Same as Result
An specific element property or event used to define its state.

Parameters can be subdivided into:
  • Primary Parameters - parameters which are used to define whether goal is achieved or not
  • Secondary Parameters - parameters which are used to determine how goal was achieved
  • Unrelated Parameters - parameters which are not used in a management process and can be ignored
(Business Process)
An execution pattern to achieve one or few goals. Process is typically defined as a set of subgoals achieved in a certain sequence

Also known as: Execution Pattern/Sequence, Strategy
A set of higher-level goals that direct system or element
A role to identify a passive element required and used in a management process by active elements to perform their functions.

Resources usually refer to used equipment or materials. But sometimes it may also mean subordinate Active Elements (Active Resource).
Response Time
A measure of time spent to process information and transition to execution (often in response to changes in goals or outside world).
An interpretation which can be directly linked to reaching a specific goal.

Also known as: Effect, Outcome
A set of parameter values that define condition of a system or an element at specific point in time, and transition to their values (static and dynamic states)

A logically defined subset of environment
An element role to identify an element where system actions are applied to in order to change its state
A set of elements, which is a system itself, and a component of a larger system.
A soft dependency between goals which require change of state in the same direction
An organized, purposeful structure that consists of interrelated and interdependent elements (components, entities, factors, members, parts etc.). These elements continually influence one another (directly or indirectly) to maintain their activity and the existence of the system, in order to achieve the goals of the system.

System Complexity
A measure of information volume to be processed in order to manage the system. It represents the total number of parameters (variables) managers need to be aware of and shall take into consideration to make management decisions.
System Volatility
A measure of how much external events invalidate management decisions and cause replanning
A part of a goal where element or system has a vested interest in obtaining

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